Ambassador Sune Danielsson Head of Secretariat Phone: (43-1) 960 03 Fax: (43-1) 960 031 or 032 Email: [email protected] Website: www.wassenaar.org It is the successor to the Cold War-era Coordination Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) and was appointed on 12 July 1996 in Wassenaar, The Netherlands, near The Hague. The Wassenaar agreement is much less stringent than COCOM, focusing mainly on the transparency of national export control regimes and not giving some members a veto over organisational decisions. A secretariat for the management of the agreement is located in Vienna, Austria. However, as a cocom, it is not a treaty and is therefore not legally binding. In November 1993, negotiations between the 17 MEMBER states of COCOM on the structure and objectives of the organization that will succeed COCOM began. Its members agreed to continue implementing restrictions on technology transfer until an agreement is reached on its successor organization. A consensus was reached on 9 December 1995 on the new organization known as the Wassenaar Agreement on the Control of Exports of Conventional Weapons and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies. In addition, U.S. assistance to India following the bilateral civil nuclear cooperation agreement between the two countries in 2005 helped New Delhi abandon the nuclear suppliers Group in 2008 and join the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) in 2016. The aim of the amendments was to prevent Western technology companies from selling to governments that are known to be abusing human rights. However, some technology companies have expressed concern that the scope of controls may be too broad, limiting the ability of security researchers to identify and correct security vulnerabilities. Google and Facebook have criticized the agreement for the restrictions they will set for activities such as penetration testing, information exchange on threats and bounty programs.   They argue that the restrictions will weaken the security of participating nations and will do little to contain the threats of non-participating nations.
 At the U.S.-Russian Summit in Vancouver, Canada, on April 4, 1993, the Presidents of Russia and the United States agreed that the need for a quickest possible solution to missile non-proliferation and missile technology issues, in accordance with the principles of existing international agreements, was needed.